Water Production & Recovery (Wooster, Ohio)

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Water Production & Recovery (Wooster, Ohio)
Formerly called Water Works
Type Water supply systems
Industry Public Administration;Utilities
Fate Active
Headquarters Wooster, Ohio, United States
Water Production & Recovery (Wooster, Ohio)
Headquarters Wooster, Ohio, United States
Number of locations 1

Locations[edit | edit source]

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Don't Waste Any Water: A Matter of Concern to Every Citizen[edit | edit source]

  • Don't Waste Any Water: A Matter of Concern to Every Citizen[1]

The scarcity of city water is causing an uneasiness, as in case a fire of any proportions the supply would soon give out. The pumps at the Reddick dam are kept going night and day, but no amount can be got ahead as the daily consumption has grown to be much greater that the supply from this source. The Water Trustees have had Superintendent Keyser keep the Bloomington reservoir in reserve in case the Reddick dam should give out and now that this has happened ____ wisdom of the plan is apparent. All consumers owe it to themselves and the city to be very careful and see that the water is not wasted.

On the order of Mayor Jeffries, Fire Chief Gerlach and Assistant Chief Marshal Ellsperman this morning made an inspection of the Reddick dam and Bloomington reservoir. They reported that the supply of water is low, but believe that it is sufficient for fire protection, if consumers will exercise care, but that if this is not done it will be wise to shut off all consumers.

BETTER WATER WORKS: WHAT WOOSTER WANTS AND CAN WELL HAVE; Report of Water Extension Commission to the City Council, Wooster, Oh. Nov. 19, 1894[edit | edit source]

  • BETTER WATER WORKS: WHAT WOOSTER WANTS AND CAN WELL HAVE; Report of Water Extension Commission to the City Council, Wooster, Oh. Nov. 19, 1894[2]
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To the Honorable Council of the City of Wooster, Ohio. SIRS:-- Since receiving from you upon Oct. 1, 1894, the necessary appropriation and your ratification of our election of a consulting engineer, Your Water Extension Commission has diligently continued its investigations on the subject of securing an adequate and wholesome public wat supply. Previous reports have briefly outlined the discoveries your Commissioners have made and this final report will embrace a more dull discussion of the problem to be solved, the factors and coneitions (sic) affecting its solution, together with the conclusions of your commission, and the report, estimates of the cost and recommendations of our consulting engineer.

The very first question was: What do we want water for, for fire or domestic purposes, in short, for what sort of water must we make our search? If the city's present water supply were used for no other purpose than the extinguishment of fires, the Bloomington reservoir would have been brim full and the Reddick dam spillway overflowing all last summer and any search for a further supply a useless extravagance, in fact, the well in the Second ward, with its present maximum daily pumpage of about 40,000 gallons would furnish Wooster with fire protection water enough for years to come. It is easily seen, therefoere (sic), that a shortage of fire water should not have been Wooster's chief difficulty, even though Reddick's dam stood empty all summer, and the Bloomington supply was shut nearly off from two-thirds of the city. Why, therefore, this shortage? What caused the exasperation of so many scorched, thirsty and dust-___inded citizens last summer? The secretary of the Board of Water Works Trustees informs us that there are over 300 taps connected to the city water mains, and used in furnishing water to the citizens for boilers and other manufacturing purposes, for power water motors, for lawn and street sprinkling, for laundries, bath rooms and water closets, and for many other and more strictly domestic purposes.

Here, then, is what causes the demand for more water, the private consumption for manufacturing and domestic purposes. A demand in many ways far more important than that for fire protection, and the one demand that has caused our supply to fall short every dry season. In view of this fact it may be well asked what right, legal or moral, have our water trustees to endanger the property of the city and citizens by selling water for other purposes, if the present plant was entrusted to their care for fire protection alone, as some citizens seem inclined to maintain? Your Commissioners have, therefore, assumed it as a fact that a bountiful and wholesome supply of water for domestic purposes is what is needed, and have conducted their investigations with this fact in view. Considerable time has been spent in visiting and carefully examining the various sources of supply within a reasonable distance of the city. In each case a careful investigation was made of the quality and quantity of each supply visited, both as to the water sheds of the surface streams and as to the gathering grounds of the springs and underground waters. The springs south of Wooster, known as the Albright, Welker, McKinney, Taggart and Herman springs, at first sight seemed to be in the aggregate a very desirable source of supply, but further examination and consideration made it certain their combined flow was only sufficient for the present, with no possibility of increase for the future.

This consideration and extreme likelihood of contamination by increase of population on their limited gather grounds, together with the large cost of plant necessary, caused the idea to be abandoned.

The flowing artesian well, at and near Apple Creek were examined. Their combined flow now only amounts to about 50,000 gallons per 24 hours, and they have been steadily falling. This fact, and the excessive cost of the necessary pipe line, led to the rejection of that source of supply.

The valley of the North Branch of Apple Creek was very carefully examined, because Mr. J. D. Cook had advised the building of a series of storage dams along its course as a possible source of water supply for the city.

This project we decided to be impracticable, for the reasons following:

  • 1st. Because the minimum daily surface flow in dry weather is insufficient.
  • 2d. Because the valley has many gravelly spots along its bottom, and it would be nearly impossible to store large quantities of water there, even if the water were there to be stored, and
  • 3d. Because it would be necessary for the city to buy two or three water mill privileges and sites below the proposed series of storage reservoirs.

A number of other sources, suggested by various citizens, were examined, considered, and for various reasons decided to be impracticable or too expensive, and will not here be given in detail.

A more feasible, and to a careless or uninformed observer, very attractive source of supply, is the main stream of Apple Creek, the most favored proposition being one to take the new supply from the head race of the old Phillips (or Robison) mill.

Without taking into account its liability to failure by freezing in winter, its present unfitness for domestic use without thorough and expensive mechanical filtration, and its probably present and certain future dangerous contamination by sewage, this source of supply may be considered important for quantity and accessibility.

Your Commissioners carefully examined into this project, including in its investigation the possible locations for a pumping station, the races, dams, and the stream and its water-shed, to a point beyond the village of Apple Creek.

While there is no doubt but that the quantity flowing over the surface is sufficient for the city's present and probable future needs for some time to come there are very grave doubts as to its present purity and a considerable degree of certainty that it will in the near future, be dangerously contaminated by the increasing population living within its water-shed area.

It is frequently said that running water purifies itself in a certain distance; this is only partly true, and we find it becoming less true just as we learn more about hygiene and bacteriology.

The germs of some very dangerous diseases can be exposed to freezing for weeks, and then carried by icy cold water an indefinitely great distance, only to spring into full and destructively vigorous life when eventually lodged within the system of some weak babe, rundown woman, or dyspeptic or malaria-enfeebled man; and small running streams such as Apple Creek are frequently polluted all along their course.

In this connection the history of the disastrous epidemic of typhoid fever in Plymouth, Pa., in 1885, may be cited as an illustration, the citation being from an official report.

Early in 1885 an epidemic of typhoid fever occurred in the town of Plymouth, Pa., which during the spring and summer months caused the illness of more than 1,100 people and at least 114 deaths. On investigation the cause was found to be pollution of the water supply of the town. The water supply of the town was from a mountain stream of previously remarkable purity. The reservoirs four in number, are formed of huge dams of masonry built across the stream, from the lower of which pipes led to supply the town. Above the starting point of the water pipes their is but one house situated upon the banks of the stream, this between the third and fourth reservoirs. In this house lived a man who during the months of January, February, and March was sick with typhoid fever. He contracted the disease in Philadelphia while there on a visit during the holidays. He returned to his home and Jan. 2n, 1885, was attached by the fever which run a regular course followed by a relapse. He finally recovered from his illness the first week in April. During the course of his illness his dejecta, without any attempt at disinfection, were thrown out upon the snow and frozen ground towards the edge of the bank which slopes precipitously down to the stream, flowing between the third and fourth reservoirs.

Here they remained innoxious upon the snow and frozen ground until March 26 when on account of a thaw that day, they were washed into the stream, and thence into the third reservoir. On the evening of March 26, the superintendent of the water company visited the reservoirs to ascertain the amount of water on hand. He found the first and second almost empty, while the third and fourth were rapidly filling. The pipe, which allows the water from the bottom of the third reservoir to discharged into the stream leading to the second reservoir was tightly frozen. He caused a fire to be built to melt the ice in this pipe. The water with its accumulation of typhoid fever germs was distributed to the town between March 28 and April 3. On the 9th of April the first case of typhoid fever made its appearance, and during the week beginning April 12, from 50 to 100 new cases appeared daily, and on one day it is said that 200 new cases were reported. Dr. Biggs and Prof. Breneman of New York, who investigated the cause of the epidemic, concluded their report in these words. "The conclusion is scarcely avoidable that this epidemic was due to the contamination of the water in the reservoir by the dejects of a single typhoid fever patient, whose case occurred on the banks of the stream supplying the reservoir, several miles distant from the town. The magnitude of the epidemic, and the clearly defined relation between the first and the succeeding cases, combine to make this one of the most instructive as well as one of the most terrible instances which ignorance and negligence have contributed to the records of disease."

Can Wooster afford to run the chances of an epidemic of this kind? Here are a few figures as to the cost of an epidemic like that of Plymouth, in dollars and cents.

Take the doctors bill, at say $20 for each of the 1,100 cases $22,000; undertaker's bills, at say $25 for each of the 114 death, $2,850, estimated value of each life to the community, $1,000, and $114,000 is loss by death. Total cost $138,850. Plymouth would have made money by paying that man $50,000 to go to a hospital away from her water-shed.

Two costly mistakes have been made in our Water Works so far. Let us try to avoid a third. The chances of a dangerous of Apple Creek as compared to the stream at Plymouth are about as 365 is to 1, the 365 representing the habitations in the Apple Creek water shed, including the towns of Apple Creek, Edinburg and Honeytown, together with their barnyards, pig pens, privy vaults, the distillery, brewery, slaughter houses and other similar nuisances.

Can we afford to take the chances? Poor water is dear, and Pure water is cheap at any price. Here are some interesting comparative figures concerning city water supplies and typhoid fever deaths, during the year 1890, taken from the census report. These cities take their water supply from the rivers.

CITY. Deaths from all causes Deaths from Typhoid Fever
Cincinnati, O. 6840 252?
Pittsburg and Allegheny City, Pa. 7328 495
Philadelphia, Pa. 23738 770
Chicago, Ill. (river pollutes lake) 25162 794
Washington, D. C. 5955 200
Nashville, Tenn. 1876 49

These cities take their water supply from subterranean sources:

CITY. Deaths from all causes Deaths from Typhoid Fever
Brooklyn, N. Y. 20593 194
New Orleans, La. 6875 45
Columbus, O. 1836 38
Indianapolis, Ind. 1987 57
Memphis, Tenn. 1697 83
New York city, Croton water-shed, (thoroughly protected) 43378 848

Compare Brooklyn with Pittsburg and Allegheny.

Brooklyn deaths 20, 593 of which 194 were typhoid. Pittsburg and Allegheny deaths, 7,328, of which 496 were typhoid, or, with 1/3 the of deaths 2 1/2 times the deaths from typhoid fever. Compare Cincinnati with New Orleans; New Orleans with 235 more deaths and ____ the number of deaths from typhoid.

It has been suggested that the water from Apple Creek by filtered. Land or mechanical filtration is for large quantities unsatisfactory, unless most carefully watched, and very expensive. Cities adopting it now do so under the stress only of urgent financial necessity or because no plan for obtaining naturally pure water is available. Many records of failures exist and some expensive plants have been abandoned.

The dangers outlined above in all surface water supplies may perhaps cause some to think that after all, the fine, sweet waters of the shallow wells dug in our grandfather's day or the deep driven wells of more recent times, may afford a pure and wholesome supply.

What are the geological condition in and about Wooster bearing on this point? By a reference to the report of the State Geologist we find that the city of Wooster is located upon the uppermost layers of what is known as the Waverley series of rocks the formation immediately under much of the city consisting of coarse, earthy and loosely stratified sandstones. These rocks are within a few feet of the surface over the region north of Bowman street, where they are so soft and the stratification so broken that they can be moved with an ordinary pickax.

As excavations are carried deeper, the rock becomes harder and less calcareous and is found in heavier layers, until at a depth of 20 or 30 feet, excellent quarry stone is reached. The character of this formation, with its loose joints and numerous wide vertical cleavage cracks and tissues is well illustrated by the photograph, facing this page which shows the old quarry north of town at the intersection of Market and Bever streets. It will be observed that the rock beds are in nearly horizontal layers, and that therefore the hills and valleys which give to Wayne county her wealth of beautiful scenery, have been formed not by the ridging up or folding of the underlying rocks, but the valleys have been ploughed out by the restless sweep of the ice ____ of the glacial age, and smoothed, _____ up or cut out deeper by the torrents of melted ice water following the retreat of the ice fields to the north.

It is this peculiar rock formation that gives Wayne county its numberless springs. The rain fall percolating through the top soil, settles down through the vertical rifts and seams in the rock until it meets a water tight stratum over which it flows seeking an outlet to the edge of the the nearest valley, where it breaks out in perennial springs, and when these springs have not been contaminated they furnish the purest of water, for its percolation through the top clayey soil has ________ it in a manner far more perfect than man's best art can every hope to equal. It is also to this peculiar rock formation that Wayne county owes the great prosperity of its agriculture, for it furnishes a natural drainage system of the best kind and thus gives a soul of superior excellence for the production of wheat.

But this very feature of perfect subsoil drainage opens the way for the most dangerous contamination of the spring and well waters collected in the deeper ________ and cracks of the sand and sand shale rocks.

The very looseness of the upper strata, the ease with which holes may be dug in it and the quickness with which any liquid drains away, have great encouraged and abetted the abominable practice of disposing of human excets by digging shallow vaults or dry wells through the top soil into the rock for its reception.

These receptacles, under the conditions of ordinary household use, seldom require attention, for the saturated liquids drain rapidly away and the more solid portion is either gradually dissolved by the ground water and washed out into the crevices of the rock or decomposed and passed off in the gaseous form.

Where does this liquid mass of corruption flow? Unquestionably it directly follows the same course taken by the waters which form the crystal hill-side springs, or else, as it flows down through larger or deeper crevices it finds its way into the channels which supply the deep well that so many people believe absolutely pure and gives to their water the beautiful sparkle and slightly sweetish-salty mineral like taste, pronounced by the well owners as "Iron," "Lithia," etc, and invariably recommended by them to be the finest specific in the world for lives or kidney troubles, neuralgia or heartburn. It is a disgusting picture, but a truthful one. Vaults of this kind, spreading wide their filthy contaminations are by far too common through-out the city of Wooster and there is not a shadow of a doubt that in that part of the city where the house foundations reach the rock, some, at least of the wells serve merely as the outlet drains for cesspools higher up the hill. This is especially likely to be true of the large pumping well which supplies the Bloomington Reservoir. Within a few hundred feet of that well, and on two sides of it, are rows of just such vaults or dry wells, all reaching down into the fissured rock, and nothing short of absolute disuse of the well-- or a miracle - can prevent its eventual, certain and dangerous contamination.

Whatever be the action taken, some such supply should be adopted by your honorable body so that the citizens of Wooster, who in the future visit the Water Works, will not likely to have so revolting a sight thrust upon them as was accidentally discovered at the Reddick Dam by some of the members of your commission and at least one member of your honorable body, when they found about a cubic foot of human excrement deposited within 25 or 50 feet of the stream of water flowing from one of the pumped wells into the dam.

The greater part of this was washed down into the water pipes of our city, almost directly, as the dam was nearly empty, by a dash of rain an hour or two before a camera could be brought and a photograph taken. However the photograph marked A and facing this page shows the pump and the little ravine in which the filter was partially concealed. The photography marked B following this pages, shows the appearance of the dam, and the quantity of water contained two hours after the rain. While that marked C, facing page-- -- shows a general view of the pumps and dam together.

NOTE-- The photographs referred to are attached to the official copies of the report as filed with the City Council and make it much more valuable. Of course THE REPUBLICAN cannot reproduce them

The only way to have pure water with certainty is to get water that nature itself has thoroughly filtered and to get it before it has again become contaminated and the only way to do that is to take it from under the surface of the ground, if possible, from a place where a strong surface stream will wash all surface impurities far down the valley below the point at which the supply is to be taken. Such a supply your commissioners have diligently sought and such they believe they have found.

At the western approach to our city lies concealed a vast lake of crystal-clear, pure, soft and wholesome water, in many times filtered by nature's most perfect apparatus. It is easily accessible and the quantity daily flowing down beneath the surface of the valley is ample for all time to come and can be tested and proven at small cost before any expensive part of the new plant need be built.

The Killbuck Valley, and in fact, the valley of Clear creek also, was undoubtedly one of those ploughed out of the solid foundation rocks by the slow, majestic sweep of an arm of the great ice cap, thousands of feet thick, which one covered nearly of the entire northern half of the United States and Canada. As the thousands of years of this long polar winter crept on, the ice cap grew thicker and the glacial arm longer, until extremity touched the Ohio river. Then came the arctic spring and the ice cap began to melt. Torrents raged down every hill-side and filled every valley. Ricks, huge boulders, gravel, sand, mud and broken materials of every kind were swept down the stream in enormous quantities, scouring deeper some of the valleys and damming others up until the accumulated weight of the waters gathered behind the obstacle broke and swept away like a Johnstown ____ a million times magnified. While the ice cap was melting occasional quiescent periods came to the valleys, when the waters were perhaps only partially dammed back, at which times layers and strata of fine sand and clay were deposited over the deeper and thicker layers of gravel and shale detritus that had been previously washed in by the torrent streams.

So read the geological history of the valley of the Killbuck as written on its rocks and stones. From the geological section of the oil well on the valley's edge, as shown on Plate I, facing this page, it will be noticed that, of the foundation rocks, the uppermost 150 or 200 feet contain only soft, brittle, and easily crushed sand and shale rocks. It is therefore highly probably from the general width of the Killbuck Valley, for five miles above Wooster, that the glacial arm, which formed it ploughed its way through all these loose rocks clear down to the hard fine grained sandstones about at the 200-feet level. Filled up, as the valley was subsequently, it would seem likely that the filling of gravel, shale-bits, sand and clay should probably be not less than 50 feet and possibly 150 feet deep. This tilling contains the supply of water your Commissioners believe to be the best for accessibility, quantity and quality to be found near Wooster. This vast bed of gravel is tilled nearly to the surface with water and while the water of the Killbuck's surface stream is turbid and muddy, then which had passed down through these tiltering beds of fine sand and clay is crystal-clear and of a degree of purity seldom equaled and never excelled by the finest and purest of living springs. Not only is this water pure at present, but it is protected from future contamination by the fact that the valley itself, on account of the annual overflow, is not a desirable location for either farm or town building sites and it this affords a greater area free from human habitation than can be found elsewhere in the county.

This is the supply your Commissioners most heartily and unanimously agree upon as the best for all purposes at present and for the future, and believe that immediate action should be taken towards the complete designing of a proper plant and the financial and other necessary steps commenced so that contracts for its construction may be let as soon as possible, and further they recommend that a thorough and complete test be made to demonstrate beyond doubt the abundant quantity they believe available at the junction of the Clear Creek and Killbuck Valley. Such a test will be described by our Consulting Engineer in his report which follows.

It may be proper to also state that your Commissioners deeming the matter of great importance, asked the State Board of Health to send a representative here to examine the two most accessible sources of water supply we had found and to make the analysis of the water of each.

Dr. C. E. Probst, the Secretary of the Board, came and made the examination. The letter detailing his visit and its results is as follows:

OHIO STATE BOARD OF HEALTH OFFICE OF SECRETARY, COLUMBUS, O., Oct. 31, 1894.

Dr. James D. Beer, Chairman Water Extension Commission, Wooster, Ohio.

DEAR SIR:-- On the 27th October, at your request, and following instructions or the State Board of Health, I visited your city and investigated its present and proposed public water supply, and respectfully submit the following report:

The present supply is both inadequate and undesirable. From the character of the surrounding soil and the presence of leaching cess-pools in its vicinity, there is reason to fear dangerous pollution of the water in the large well. The water connected by your impounding reservoir is not of the best character, and this supply almost entirely fails in time of drought. But there is probably little question in the minds of your citizens that a new and an additional water supply must be provided at once, and the only point to be settled is, where shall this be obtained.

First, I desire to express the opinion that if a fairly pure water at a reasonable cost, can be obtained in sufficient quantity to supply all preset and probably future needs of your city, the present source of supply should be entirely abandoned.

I was shown by your Commission two possible sources of supply; one from a mill race fed by Apple Creek, and the other from wells in the Killbuck valley, on what is known as the Eichar place. There can be no hesitation in deciding between these two supplies if health interest alone are to be considered. And even from a financial standpoint, while the cost of introducing the former supply may be less than that of the latter, it is always cheapest in the end to obtain the purest supply possible.

The creek water is subject to pollution through miles of country which it would be impossible for you to protect. The epidemic of typhoid fever at Plymouth, Pa., teaches us that even with pure mountain streams open water supply's not always safe. The proposed supply from wells on Eichar place is free from any present danger of pollution, and may be kept so by proper attention to surroundings. I feel, therefore, that I can safely recommend this as a source of water supply for your city provided it can be made to yield a sufficient quantity. While there is considerable evidence to show that an abundant supply can be obtained from this source, should be proved conclusively before extensive work is begun.

The question as to whether a better or more available supply, than either of those proposed, could be found has not been considered, as your Commission carefully looked into that matter.

A sample of water was taken from the head race at Phillips mill on Oct. 27, 1894. This was labeled sample No. 1. A sample was also taken from a test well, known as well No. 7, on the Eichar place at noon of the same day. This was marked sample No. 2. These were submitted to Prof. C. C. Howard of Columbus, Ohio, for chemical examination. Prof. Howard has made the following report: October 30, 1894.

Dr. C. O. Probst, Secretary Board of Health: DEAR SIR:-- I have made a sanitary analysis of the samples of water received from Wooster with the following results:

Parts per 100,000. Phillips Mill Eichar Farm
Number 1 2
Oxygen Required .34 .6
Free Ammonia .001 .001
Albuminoid Ammonia .018 .005
Nitrous Acid trace trace
Nitric Acid .035 .015
Chlorine .36 .20
Total Solids 27.7 18.6
In sample (1) the oxoygen (sic) Required and Albuminoid Ammonia are decidedly high than will be found in a water of good quality, and these factors are of sufficient importance to regard the water as not a desirable one. In sample (2) it will be observed that all the constituents except the free ammonia and nitrous acid, which are the same, are less than in sample (1). These are so low that the water is shown

Water! Water!! Water!!![edit | edit source]

  • Water! Water!! Water!!![10]

And the cry is Water, Water, in the long month of August!

There has been much talk in Wooster of late about the inadequate supply of Water. Chief among the men who are engaged in the crusade for pure Water are Professor Bennett, chemist at the University of Wooster and Minor Scovel.

It has been estimated that a satisfactory plant can be built for from $60,000 to $75,000.

In answer to the contention of the financial authorities of Wooster that the city has neither the money nor the authority to issue Bonds for the same, Professor Bennett says the Water from Applecreek, which is being now used, can, by a process of filteration, be rendered sufficiently pure for household purposes for $4,000.

Mr. Minor Scovel contents himself with saying that all the Council has to do is to get the money somewhere and build the plant. He does not cite any parties who are ready to furnish the money on the securities that the Council can now give that will stand the test of the courts.

It is true that on Saturday the Sinking Fund Commission of the City of Wooster sold bonds to the amount of $20,000 at par; but the Bonds were to refund second series of City Hall Bonds-- not to pay them-- and the proceeds of the sale can not be applied to any other purpose.

But is Wooster in the dire extremity as to Water that these two gentlemen would have the Council believe?

A few days ago, Mr. S. S. Shilling said that he had lived 43 years in the same house on North Market street, and that the well water on his lot was "living" water, and some years ago he had furnished water to a friend in Cleveland from that well, and that he, Mr. Shilling, had constantly used water from that well and that he had not in any way suffered from its use.

Mr. George Plummer, A. M. Parrish, John F. Barrett and many other persons have borne concurrent testimony as to the equally excellent quality of the water that issues from their wells.

At each of the Public School buildings, there is a well of excellent water from which the school children drink without peril to their health.

The Frick fountain, the new well at the Court House, the D. Nice fountain and the fountain at the Plank & Gray mill furnish water for the public also.

The Reddick dam was built principally for fire purposes; but it has become of general use for other purposes. The water in it is low now. Of late years it has been, and is now, adequately supplied from Applecreek. A larger pump and larger pipes to connect the pumping station with the mains at the junction of the streets at the Catholic church is advisable to keep the dam full and meet all demands.

The Bloomington reservoir is quite full. Water is pumped five hours a day. The Water, however, becomes warm by being exposed to the sun. If it could be kept filled with crushed ice the Water would be more palatable for drinking purposes.

Could the City bond itself heavily for another Water plant, the consumers, even the wash women, who might use it would have to pay for its use.

The people who have wells of good water that they use constantly would be taxed to maintain the new plant that Professor Bennett and Minor Scovel would have now foisted on the city. -- A CITIZEN.

GOOD REPORT ABOUT WATER: Condition of Plant is Very Poor, However[edit | edit source]

  • GOOD REPORT ABOUT WATER: Condition of Plant is Very Poor, However[11]

By request of persons directly concerned, and for the information of users of city water, and in fact, all those who are interested in a better water supply for our city, the following figures are presented referring to receipts and disbursements of the city water works department during and including the year 1906:

Receipts for rates, meters, taxes and miscellaneous sources, $6,766.79.

EXPENDITURES.

Fuel and light, $1,536.77, labor, employees (sic) $1,281.33; extraordinary, lands, buildings, etc. $596.22; salary superintendent water works and streets $820; supplies and repairs, $376.41; tools and machinery $3?11.40; collection, water rent $186.83; incidentals and fixtures, expense of investigating plant $114.02; meters $104.86; stationery, printing, etc $57.35. Total $5,235.19.

Payment of loan for 1905, $1,084.65, total receipts $6,766.79, total paid out $6,316.84, amount on hand $149.95.

In addition to the above there was paid a bill of $300 for fuel for 1905 and another bill of $100 due employees at the beginning of the year 1906. Should these previous bills be eliminated there would be a balance in the treasury of about $2,000 over and above the expenses. There is estimated to be $200 due for water used during 1906 not payable yet under contract. The offices of superintendent of water works and street commissioner having been consolidated the entire salary was taken from the water works fund. This salary will be more nearly equalized during 1907. About $150 worth of fuel is stored at the Applecreek pumping station.

Absolutely necessary extensions and additions were made to the system as follows:

MANY NEW TAPS. Twenty-three new taps were placed with an estimated capacity of three million gallons of water. On account of the paving of College avenue the pipe line was extended on that street, at a considerable cost. Extensions were made to the East Vine street line. Reddick's dam and the city property adjoining was enclosed with a new fence. Many repairs were made to fire hydrants.

IS DANGEROUS. The pumping machinery and physical property at the Spink street pumping station is in a very satisfactory condition. The Applecreek pumping station is in a bad, even dangerous condition. The boiler of the engine has long since outlived its usefulness and if present conditions ___________ must be replaced very soon.

The postal card system of sending statements to water users has been adopted with considerable success in connection with new books. Many water users now _____ _____ check with the card by avoiding a trip to the office. Perhaps the most unpleasant feature of the collections has been the enforcement of the ____ against delinquent users. About $18 was collected ____ __ is source at the last collection. That ___ ___ must be strictly enforced is evident. In the department of _________ walks the streets _____ _________ conditions. Considerable paving's has been done to paved streets by raising low places and fixing ________ about sixty sidewalks were ___________ repaired which was ______/ Many others to whom ________________________ were unable to comply ______________ out of not being ______ to get ________________. About 150 more notices were already given or will be soon to _________________ start can __________ Respect_______ ____________ L. S. _________ John Nolle _______________ _____________________ Jas. P. Fisher, Supt. Water Works and Streets W. G. Patterson, Clerk

Many Lives in Peril: Serious Report Regarding City Water Supply[edit | edit source]

  • Many Lives in Peril: Serious Report Regarding City Water Supply; Board of Health Find That Sewage Drains Into Reddick's Dam and Order Its Immediate Removal[12]

The Board of Health has taken up the matter of abating the nuisance which pollutes the water in the Reddick dam and makes this source of the city's water supply a veritable cesspool. Dr. J. W. Lehr, health officer, and members J. G. Sanborn and Anthony Leies paid a visit to the Children's Home and after a thorough inspection decided that prompt and determined action should be taken in abating the nuisance. Dr. Lehr made a diagram which shows that the sewage from the Home is carried from the privy vaults by an 8-inch sewer to a point in the stream less than half a miles from the dam, and that all the surface drainage from the barn and pig pen at the Home and the barn and outbuildings on the Baum farm run down the ravine and empty into the stream which supplies the dam. Dr. Lehr stated that if typhoid fever should break out among the inmates of the Home it would be no time until there would be hundreds of cases in the city, that he believed this matter had been neglected long enough, and as the law was very clear on the question of contamination of water by drainage, he felt sure that the Board of Health would stand by him in his effort to abate what would without a doubt prove the source of an epidemic if not taken in hand. The Trustees of the Home and the owners of the Baum farm were notified today that the nuisance must be abated in ten days. The Trustees will have a meeting tomorrow afternoon and have asked Dr. Lehr to be present and make suggestions as to how to remedy the evil imperiling the city.

The Board of Health held a special meeting Friday night to take action on the matter. Messrs, Beer, Sanborn, Funck, Miller and Firestone were present. Dr. J. W. Lehr made a statement as to the reason for the call for the special meeting, and showed that the stream which emptied into the Reddick dam is polluted by sewage from the Children's Home and Baum farm yard.

Remarks were made by Messrs. Firestone, Funck, Beer, Miller and Mayor Jeffries. All agreed that it was the duty of the Board to abate the matter for the good of the community.

On motion of Mr. Funck the Health Officer was instructed to notify the trustees of the Children's Home and owner of the Baum farm that they abate the nuisance whereby the stream of water supplying Reddick's dam is now polluted, by excluding from said stream all of the drainage and sewage from the buildings, barns, barnyard, pig pen, chicken yards, or offal of any character, the same having been declared a menace to the health of residents of the city of Wooster using water from said Reddick dam, the nuisance to be abated within 10 days.

A number of complaints were received from citizens asking for the abatement of nuisances in the city, all of which the Health Officer was ordered to investigate.

MUST BE STOPPED: Skating on Reddick Dam and Bloomington Reservoir[edit | edit source]

  • MUST BE STOPPED: Skating on Reddick Dam and Bloomington Reservoir[13]

Many people during the last few days have been making skating places out of the ice on the Bloomington reservoir and Reddick's dam. While many may not be aware of the fact, such use of city water supply is against the law. Supt. Fisher and Chief Leiner visited both places Saturday afternoon and gave notice to those whom they found skating that the practice must be stopped, and also posted notices.

CITY WATER LOW: Consumers Must Not Waste Supply; Condition Serious[edit | edit source]

  • CITY WATER LOW: Consumers Must Not Waste Supply; Condition Serious[14]

The dry weather of the last few days and the enormous consumption of water by consumers has caused the supply of water in both the Reddick dam and the Bloomington reservoir to go down to a stake that makes it very important that all waste and needless use be cut down. The pump at the Apple Creek station is being run steadily, yet the amount of water cannot be kept up to stage for safety in case of fire. Supt. Fisher says that he believes that if the people will use the water a little more sparingly that there will be no occasion to turn off water anywhere. Citizens should unite in husbanding the water supply.

Kistler Has Second Article With Figures About Annexation[edit | edit source]

  • Kistler Has Second Article With Figures About Annexation[15]

Editor Wooster Record,
Wooster, O.
I will give you my second article on the cost of annexation of Bloomington to Wooster. But I first want to prove part of my first article which just happened to come about. In my first article I stated the extra cost would be for pumping water around $6.00 for 3 hours extra pumping, which I tried to keep within a conservative figure. Then on Saturday, July 31, Service Director Adams gives the cost of operation at the plant at $2.50 per hour, which would be $7.50 for 3 hours, so you see I did not over estimate when I said $6. However, each of our articles were separate, but I only want to show the people that I mean to tell the truth. If we annex Bloomington we must place a standpipe at the highest point possible to get best results near the old No. 8 school house would be an elevation of 1200 feet. Our old standpipe at Reddick dam is 1144 feet now; we would have a difference of 56 feet of elevation to raise the water and then the standpipe should be elevated on stilts, which would be more extra cost in the way of pumping water to such a high point. We would have about a mile of 12 in. main at $3.50 per foot or $18,480 for one mile, plus the right of way across property from Reddick's dam to the standpipe. The cost of a 2 million standpipe would be $30,000. The cost of one square mile of water mains for Bloomington would be around $63,000 and water mains are paid out of the general fund of a city or out of special water bonds and are not paid for by the abutting property owners, as some people have told me was the case. Now I will give more articles from time to time on this cost and will try to have [my?] figures very conservative, and if any interested bidding firm gives any lower figures I will try to hold those bidders to their figures if they get the work, if annexation should carry. I will give you a tabulated gross cost and Wooster's cost will be 20 times bigger than Bloomington's cost. My next article will tell about new school house in Bloomington, extra teachers, fire and police protection. -- Jos F. Kistler, Councilman 1st Ward.

Newspaper ads[edit | edit source]

1917[edit | edit source]

1918[edit | edit source]

1919[edit | edit source]

Newspaper citations with no attached images[edit | edit source]

  • September 29, 1893: "Reddick Dam Dry- Warning to Water Consumers: "Superintendent of Water Works Educard Keyser this afternoon informed us that the Reddick dam is dry. This makes the third time this dam has given out in three years. The only source of city water now is from the Bloomington reservoir. The situation is one that concerns all citizens and all consumers should exercise care and judgement and see that water is not wasted."", The Wooster Daily Republican, p. 4.
  • December 11, 1907: "Auto Makes a Bad Fire: Water Weak in Effort to Extinguish Flames", Wooster Republican, p. 8.
  • March 18, 1908: "A business man asked The Republican to suggest to the board of public service that now would be a good time to have the paved streets washed and cleaned up. There is plenty of water in the Reddick dam for the purpose and that the emptying of the water might help clear up the supply from the dam.", Wooster Republican, p. 8.
  • September 16, 1908: "Moonlight Picnic: "Reddick's Dam was the destination of a jolly party of young people on Wednesday evening where they enjoyed a "Moonlight picnic." The evening, though a little cook, was an ideal one for an event of this kind, and was enjoyed to the utmost. After the serving of the fine supper the young ladies had prepared, a marshamallow (sic) roast was the principal event. At an appropriate hour the young ladies and gentlemen wended their way homeward making the woods and ____ resound with their merry songs and laughter.", Wooster Republican, p. 7.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Wooster Daily Republican, Wooster, Ohio. 1893 September 30, p. 4.
  2. Wooster Republican, Wooster, Ohio. 1894 November 28, p. 1.
  3. Wooster Water Works WR28Nov1894 p1 0004
  4. Wooster Water Works WR28Nov1894 p1 0004
  5. Wooster Water Works WR28Nov1894 p1 0004
  6. Wooster Water Works WR28Nov1894 p1 0004
  7. Wooster Water Works WR28Nov1894 p1 0004
  8. Wooster Water Works WR28Nov1894 p1 0004
  9. Wooster Republic article, 1894 November 28, p. 1
  10. Wayne County Democrat, Wooster, Ohio. 1903 August 5, p. 4.
  11. Wooster Republican, Wooster, Ohio. 1907 January 30, p. 6.
  12. Wooster Daily Republican, Wooster, Ohio. 1894 July 2, p. 4.
  13. Wooster Republican, Wooster, Ohio. 1907 February 13, p. 3.
  14. Wooster Republican, Wooster, Ohio. 1907 August 21, p. 4.
  15. Wooster Daily Record, Wooster, Ohio. 1926 August 20, p. 4.
  16. Wooster Republican. Wooster, Ohio, 1917-04-21, p. 2.
  17. Wooster Republican. Wooster, Ohio, 1917-07-02, p. 2.
  18. Wooster Daily News. Wooster, Ohio, 1917-09-19, p. 3.
  19. Wooster Republican. Wooster, Ohio, 1918-02-20, p. 6.
  20. Wooster Republican. Wooster, Ohio, 1919-06-24, p. 3.

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References[edit | edit source]